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LCA Approach


Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is the evaluation of the environmental impacts a given product or service will have through its entire life cycle: raw material extraction, manufacturing, transport, use and end of life.

To perform an LCA, Grid Solutions uses an environmental analysis tool (SIMAPRO) that can quantify with precision the impact of products on the main environmental issues (see details below). All types of products have been assessed, from protection relays to an entire 765 kV substation, as well as circuit breakers, transformers and disconnectors.

A specific organization has been set up with fully trained LCA correspondents who are active within each product line. To communicate LCA results to customers, Grid Solutions uses the electrical equipment LCA standard: the Product Environmental Profile (PEP).

Product Environmental Profile


  • More than 20 Product Environmental Profiles have been achieved so far. Here is the list of products which have attained PEP. The PEP results are available upon request via your usual customer point of contact.

    Air-Insulated Switchgear
        Circuit Breakers: CB SF6-free solution 72,5kV / GL309 72,5kV / GL312X 145kV / GL312 145kV / GL312P 145kV / GL314 245kV / GL316 420kV / GL316X 420kV
        Instrument Transformers: OTCF 245kV / OTCF 420kV
        Disconnectors: S2DA 245kV / S3C 245kV / SPV 245kV

    Gas-Insulated Substations
        B65 145kV, F35 72kV, F35 145kV, F35 170kV, B105 245kV, B105 252kV, T155 420kV, T155 550kV

    Spring operating mechanisms
        FK3-1, FK3-2, FK3-12

    Power Transformers
        Interconnection transformers: 110kV/63MVA, 107kV/31.5MVA
        HVDC transformer: 410kV/258MVA
        Wall bushings: 420kV AC, 315kV DC

    Power Electronic & Automation
        MICOM P40 Agile
        VSC Valves

PEP Explanation


  • PEP assesses the environmental impact on specific criteria across different phases of the product life cycle. It is important to point out that these LCA results depend on the scope of the study, the assumptions taken and the database used. In consequence, results cannot be compared to other environmental declarations without checking if all of these elements are the same.


    The environmental impacts of our products are assessed on the following 18 criteria:


    • Climate change calculates the contribution to global warming.
    • Ozone depletion calculates the contribution to the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer.
    • Human toxicity evaluates the chronic toxicological effects on the human health of the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic substances.
    • Photochemical oxidant formation evaluates the contribution of the system to the creation of this pollution.
    • Particulate matter formation in air <10μm evaluates the contribution of the system to the creation of fine suspended particulates in the air.
    • Ionizing radiation evaluates the rate of ionizing radiation of the system.
    • Terrestrial acidification characterizes the increase in the quantity of acid substances.
    • Freshwater eutrophication expresses the contribution of the system to the phenomenon of eutrophication of freshwater in kg of equivalents of phosphate.
    • Marine eutrophication expresses the contribution of the system to the phenomenon of eutrophication of freshwater in kg of equivalents of nitrogen.
    • Terrestrial eco-toxicity evaluates eco-toxicity and characterizes the possible hazards induced by the presence of the chemical compounds in the terrestrial ecological system.
    • Freshwater eco-toxicity evaluates eco-toxicity and characterizes the possible hazards induced by the presence of the chemical compounds in the freshwater ecological system.
    • Marine eco-toxicity evaluates eco-toxicity and characterizes the possible hazards induced by the presence of the chemical compounds in the marine ecological system.
    • Agricultural land occupation reflects the damage made at the ecosystem (agricultural land) because of the effects of this occupation.
    • Urban land occupation reflects the damage made at the ecosystem (urban land) because of the effects of this occupation.
    • Natural land transformation reflects the damage made with the ecosystem (urban grounds) because of the effects of this transformation.
    • Water depletion enables to evaluate the water consumption necessary to each system.
    • Metal depletion expresses the use of the mineral resources (metals) of a system.
    • Fossil fuel depletion evaluates the quantity of fossils fuel used by a system and the impact of this use on the depletion of the fuels of this type.